Medical Emergencies in the Dental Setting
Inadequate emergency planning and protocols can cause negative outcomes.
Patients may experience medical emergencies while receiving dental care. Emergencies that can develop without warning include syncope, altered consciousness, cardiovascular events, allergies, respiratory issues, seizures, and diabetes-related symptoms. It is critical for dental practices to be prepared for patients with unexpected medical conditions by having systems in place for all types of emergency situations. Preparedness is critical to ensure the safety of patients and prevent catastrophic outcomes.
A young adult male presented to a dentist for removal of wisdom teeth. The patient had an intense fear of dentistry and was reluctant to undergo the procedure. His complete medical history was unknown because he was adopted, although his medical history prior to the procedure was insignificant. An oral benzodiazepine was prescribed, and the patient was instructed to take the medication one hour before arrival. The patient was assessed after he arrived, and his vital signs were stable. He was very quiet and soft-spoken when taken to the dental operatory, and the dental team assumed that the premedication had achieved the desired result. An IV was inserted without difficulty but before the parenteral sedation was administered, the patient stated, “I feel really strange.”
He suddenly became unresponsive and developed respiratory depression and subsequent cardiac arrest. The dentist instructed his staff to call emergency medical services (EMS) and ordered the practice’s automatic emergency defibrillator (AED) and crash cart.
The crash cart was located in operating suite #3, and the patient was in suite #1. The hallway between the two suites was blocked by a copy machine, so the cart had to be routed through another area of the office to reach the patient. In addition, the wheels of the cart were locked and efforts to push it forward caused it to fall over and the contents spilled on the floor. The dental assistant retrieved the items from the floor, placed them on the cart, and finally delivered it to the operatory suite.
The dentist requested additional medications after the crash cart arrived. The hygienist retrieved the medications from the crash cart and noticed that they were expired. The dentist requested an alternate medication, but it was not available in the dental practice. Oxygen was used to resuscitate the patient, but gas in the tank was minimal and was completely depleted prior to the arrival of the EMS team. Although the AED battery had not been inspected for a year, it was still effective.
Resuscitation efforts continued with a combination of the AED and medications in the operatory suite. EMS transported the patient to the hospital, and cardiac tests concluded a familial polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (FPVT) diagnosis.
Risk Management Discussion
Although FPVT is rare, it is an example of a scenario that can surprise dental staff even when a patient appears to be healthy. Although a preoperative assessment of the patient was completed, this case illustrates how an inadequate or unavailable medical history and communication failure can lead to an adverse outcome. In this case, the patient’s verbal concern prior to parenteral sedation was likely an indicator of respiratory depression.
The medical crisis ensued rapidly and without warning. The dental practice had failed to conduct regular inventories of medications and did not perform routine practice drills prior to the event. The absence of these protocols left the dentist and his staff unprepared for medical emergencies.
Risk Management Strategies
- Review state laws regarding emergency preparedness as it applies to your practice.
- Prepare your team to recognize signs of urgent/emergent situations. Ensure that each employee has the appropriate level of training in life support and pharmacology of anxiolytics and sedatives.
- Assign all emergency-related tasks—such as retrieving emergency supplies, checking patient vital signs, and calling 911—to individual staff members. Have a backup plan for staff absences.
- Develop written protocols for handling emergencies of all types. Include the protocols in new staff orientation and review them annually with all staff members.
- Practice preprocedure briefings with all involved, including the patient.
- Perform and document routine checks on emergency medical supplies and medication inventory. This should include monitoring expiration dates and battery life as applicable.
- Perform emergency drills and simulation training for all types of medical and behavioral emergency situations.
- Follow your state laws, dental board requirements, and malpractice carrier’s recommendations regarding reporting and disclosure after an adverse event.
Contact the Department of Patient Safety and Risk Management when you need guidance or assistance in addressing any patient safety or risk management concerns.
American Dental Association. Medical Emergencies in the Dental Office. www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/medical-emergencies-in-the-dental-office
The guidelines suggested here are not rules, do not constitute legal advice, and do not ensure a successful outcome. The ultimate decision regarding the appropriateness of any treatment must be made by each healthcare provider considering the circumstances of the individual situation and in accordance with the laws of the jurisdiction in which the care is rendered.