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COVID-19 and Patient Safety in the Medical and Dental Office

Debra Kane Hill, MBA, RN, Senior Patient Safety Risk Manager, The Doctors Company, Part of TDC Group

In May 2023, the federal Public Health Emergency declaration for SARS-CoV-2 officially ended. Nonetheless, as we move forward into the fifth year, COVID-19 persists across the spectrum of healthcare. Medical and dental practices must continue to remain mindful of new variants, infection rates, vaccines, protocols, and resources within their community.

On May 8, 2023, the CDC updated its recommendations for infection prevention and control for healthcare personnel. These revised recommendations are applicable post-public health emergency.

According to the CDC's COVID Data Tracker, SARS-CoV-2 “is constantly changing and accumulating mutations in its genetic code over time. New variants of SARS-CoV-2 are expected to continue to emerge. Some variants will emerge and disappear, while others will emerge and continue to spread and may replace previous variants.”

The CDC’s data show that the rate of hospital admissions rises and falls in different regions as new variants manifest. The potential exists for community transmission to surge and for hospital beds to be in short supply once again.

Practices must also be aware that all three viruses—SARS-CoV-2, RSV, and the flu—may be seen within their office settings. Understanding the differences between the three viruses will help ensure a precise differential diagnosis. See our article “Flu, RSV, or COVID-19? Convergence of Three Viruses Creates Risk of Diagnostic Errors” for additional strategies.

As communities around the country face potential new subvariants, what are the latest considerations for keeping patients and staff safe within medical and dental office settings? Consider the strategies presented in this guide.

Mask Requirements

The CDC lifted its recommendation for mandatory universal masking in all healthcare settings in September 2022. Except in rare circumstances, medical and dental practices followed suit. With the recent rise of the highly mutated COVID-19 variants BA.2.86 (nicknamed “Pirola”) and its offshoot JN.1, some facilities have reinitiated mandatory masking based on local transmission rates. (Check the CDC’s COVID Data Tracker for the current status of variant ratios in the United States.) With the potential for these newer variants to lead to a significant wave of COVID-19 in 2024, medical and dental practices must be attentive to infection rates within their local jurisdiction.

If masking is required in the community or clinical setting, practice staff who are responsible for making in-office patient appointments will need to communicate patient expectations for established infection-control protocols prior to the patient’s arrival in the office. It is also important to post signage on the entrance door and on the website.

For patients who are sick, immunocompromised, and in close proximity to one another, wearing masks continues to be clinically prudent. Have masks available for these patients.

Managing the Unvaccinated

According to the CDC’s COVID Data Tracker, vaccination rates across the U.S. have slowed over the past year as restrictions were lifted. As of May 10, 2023, 81.4 percent (270.2 million) of the U.S. population had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, while 69.5 percent (230.6 million) have completed the primary series as defined by the CDC. For those age 65 and over, 95 percent (58.8 million) have received one dose, while 94.4 percent (51.7 million) of Americans in that demographic have completed the primary series.

For bivalent boosters, only 17.0 percent (56.5 million), and 43.3 percent (23.7 million) of those age 65 and older have received updated boosters. Since compliance with booster injections has dropped over the past year, healthcare practitioners must continue to have meaningful discussions with patients about vaccines and provide them with fact-based information.

Many practices continue to ask, “How do we handle our unvaccinated patients?” While some read “unvaccinated” as shorthand for “antivaccine” or “against the COVID-19 vaccine,” in fact, the unvaccinated population includes adults and children with certain medical conditions, as well as infants not yet eligible for a COVID-19 vaccine. Admittedly, however, most practitioner questions about unvaccinated patients pertain to those who are eligible for a COVID-19 vaccine but have declined it for various reasons. Many parents with young children and adolescents, for example, fail to seek the vaccine due to its novelty.

Assess why a patient is not vaccinated. Patients who are members of certain religious communities may decline a vaccine on those grounds. Others may decline the vaccine due to concerns about its efficacy, potential side effects, and adverse events.

Therefore, in addition to conducting patient visits via telemedicine when appropriate, practices might consider other options for seeing unvaccinated patients, depending on the medical specialty and patient type.

One option is maintaining the office policies and practices for infection control that were in effect before vaccinations became available while considering community transmission levels. These include the use of curbside visits, pre-examination questions and screening, masking by patients and staff, social distancing, and disinfecting patient care areas frequently.

Another option is designating one exam room only for the treatment of unvaccinated patients by fully vaccinated clinicians wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), while maintaining rigorous screening for patients entering the facility.

Alternatively, unvaccinated patients might be seen only during certain hours, such as at the beginning or end of the day. It is not recommended that practices follow a blanket policy of refusing to see unvaccinated patients. (For more on this topic, see the suggested recommendations in the “Ongoing Screening and Management” section below or the CDC’s “FAQs for the Interim Clinical Considerations for COVID-19 Vaccination.”) Always evaluate patients individually for risk, acuity, and treatment options.

Vaccine Considerations

The following recommendations will assist in vaccine administration and management

Ongoing Screening and Management

The following recommendations will assist in ongoing screening and management of suspected COVID-19 patients in your practice:

  • Legislation and Guidance: Reference the CDC, your state licensing board, professional societies, and federal, state, and local authorities for public health guidance and new legislation. Even now, the situation continues to be fluid. Monitor for outbreaks of COVID-19 cases within your community. Stay on top of current trends to protect your patients and your practice.
  • Infection Control Protocols for the Office Setting: Per the CDC, the updated Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Healthcare Personnel During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic provides specific instructions for healthcare facilities based on community transmission levels and healthcare settings (medical and dental).
  • Screening Criteria: Follow the CDC’s three-criteria screening process for those entering your office setting: 1. A positive viral test for SARS-CoV-2; 2. Symptoms of COVID-19; and 3. Higher-risk exposure (for healthcare personnel [HCP]). Check the CDC website regularly for any updates to screening criteria. Assess visitors to your facility for symptoms and contact exposure and direct them to remain outside if COVID-19 infection is suspected.
  • Differentiating Between the Flu, RSV, and COVID-19: The flu, RSV, and COVID-19 are all respiratory illnesses that can present with similar symptoms. For further guidance, see our article “Flu, RSV, or COVID-19? Convergence of Three Viruses Creates Risk of Diagnostic Errors.”
  • Accepting Patients: It is strongly recommended that practices not turn away patients who are not fully vaccinated or simply because a patient calls with acute respiratory symptoms. Triage all patients over the phone or via telemedicine and manage them according to CDC recommendations. Refusing assessment/care may lead to concerns of patient abandonment.
  • Designated Triage Location: To limit exposure in your facility when transmission levels are high, check with your local public health authorities for locations designated to triage suspected patients. Community emergency preparedness plans would be activated so that parties are coordinating efforts to deliver effective public health intervention.
  • Telehealth Triage: For communities with high transmission rates, the CDC recommends alternatives to face-to-face triage and visits, particularly for high-risk patients, if screening can take place over the phone, via telemedicine, through patient portals or online self-assessment tools, or through a designated external triage station. Licensed staff should be trained in triage protocol to determine which patients can be managed safely at home versus those who need to be seen at the office or at a designated community facility. The Doctors Company offers resources on telehealth. For a list of telehealth COVID-19 rules by state, see the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) document, “U.S. States and Territories Modifying Requirements for Telehealth in Response to COVID-19."
  • Patient Testing: Medical and dental practitioners should determine which patients require testing based on presenting symptoms, history, contact exposure, community transmission of disease, and for early identification in special settings (such as nursing home admission or elective surgery). See the CDC’s “COVID-19 Testing: What You Need to Know” and “Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2, the Virus That Causes COVID-19.” The CDC provides instructions for reporting COVID-19 cases. Dial and ask for the Clinician Call Center.
  • Elective Services: If cases of COVID-19 trend significantly upward within your community, check with regional health authorities on the provision of nonessential and elective healthcare visits and group-related activities. States and counties vary depending on the number of cases, availability of PPE, and availability of hospital beds. Some states may reinstate restrictions on the provision of nonurgent, elective surgeries and procedures. (See the FSMB’s “COVID-19 Related Legislation,” updated 2023.) In some states, violations may result in fines or complaints to the medical or dental board. Check with state and local regulatory agencies for any related mandates.
  • Office Messaging: Screen patients prior to visits using screening questionnaires via texts and/or emails. For those exhibiting symptoms of COVID-19, consider scheduling a telehealth visit. Post entry-door signage requiring patients and visitors who are exhibiting COVID-19 symptoms or who have had recent contact exposure to immediately notify facility personnel by telephone for instructions on accessing care. (See the CDC’s “Symptoms of COVID-19.”) Include information on the practice website regarding office policies for appointments, telephone assessment/telemedicine, and visitors. Also, post COVID-19 resources for patients with a reminder to maintain physical distance, wear a face mask if exhibiting symptoms of cough, and follow local orders to lessen community spread.
  • Physical Distancing: The CDC still recommends physical distancing within healthcare facilities. Encourage patients and staff to sit at least six feet or more apart and reconfigure seating as needed. Patients can be asked to wait in their vehicle if that option is appropriate. Remove magazines and toys from the waiting room. Disinfect the waiting room routinely throughout the day. Develop a cleaning schedule and checklist for your facility, and document in administrative files that it is followed.
  • Limit Exposure: Limit staff exposure to suspected COVID-19 patients by keeping the exam room door closed. Ideally, the designated exam room should be at the back of the office, away from other staff and patients. Only vaccinated employees should interact with these patients.
  • Surface Disinfection: Disinfect surfaces once the patient exits the room. Ensure that participating staff members continue to wear PPE. For information about cleaning agents, see the Environmental Protection Agency’s About List N: Disinfectants for Coronavirus (COVID-19).
  • Dental Office Considerations: The CDC’s latest recommendations apply to all healthcare settings, including dentistry. Continue to screen patients for coronavirus symptoms and postpone nonurgent dental care if the patient has tested positive at home or is symptomatic for COVID-19. Urgent febrile patients may be seen if the fever is suspected to be due to a dental condition, but the dentist should make this determination. Continue to follow the most current PPE guidelines as defined by the CDC and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Periodically review state health department COVID-19 guidance and county infection rates. Devices such as ultrasonic scalers, high-speed dental handpieces, and air/water syringes produce aerosols during use, creating additional exposure risk for clinicians. The CDC recommends additional precautions, such as four-handed dentistry, high-evacuation suction, and the use of dental dams during these procedures to reduce the risk of droplets. Participating staff should wear NIOSH-approved N95 masks or higher-level respirators in areas with high rates of coronavirus transmission. Review the CDC’s setting-specific considerations for dentistry in their entirety (scroll down to “Dental Facilities”).
  • Patient Education: Refer to CDC resources for providing suspected COVID-19 patients and their close contacts with up-to-date, factual information about the virus. Provide information about how to follow infection-control practices at home, such as in-home isolation and quarantine, hand hygiene, cough etiquette, waste disposal, and the use of masks. Remind patients and their families to access information about the virus through reputable sources such as the CDC, not through social media.
  • Provider/Staff Exposure: Encourage vaccination among your staff. Screen healthcare personnel daily for symptoms/contacts relevant to COVID-19. Any unprotected occupational exposure by staff members should be assessed, monitored, and documented in administrative files. See the CDC’s “Interim Guidance for Managing Healthcare Personnel with SARS-CoV-2 Infection or Exposure to SARS-CoV-2.” If any practitioners and/or staff test positive within your facility, conduct and document a risk assessment identifying contacts, type of interaction, and PPE in use. Disclosure to patients may be necessary depending on the type of exposure that occurred, if any, but always take necessary steps to protect the privacy of the infected employee. Telephone calls directly to patients are the most efficient method of notification, followed by a letter. Suggested notification includes, “We are calling to inform you that someone in our office tested positive for COVID-19 on the day of your visit...” followed by recommendations for assessment and any needed follow-up. If deemed necessary, your local health department may assist with patient notifications. Contact your patient safety risk manager at The Doctors Company, as needed, for additional guidance. For return-to-work guidance, review the CDC’s “Return to Work Criteria.”
  • Staff Training: Assess the need for additional staff training to review screening and triage protocols, patient management, use of PPE, patient communications, and any revision in policies and procedures that have been made to adapt to the evolution of the virus. Document all training provided to staff and maintain records in administrative files.
  • Team Briefs: Conduct daily staff briefs/huddles and end-of-day debriefs. These provide all staff with opportunities to discuss issues anticipated during the day and identify concerns, pre- and post-clinic, including COVID-19 updates. (See the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s TeamSTEPPS® tools.) Acknowledge the need to provide emotional support to staff who may be dealing with fear or other stressors by making employee assistance programs or other support mechanisms available. Communicate resources to employees.

Administrative Recordkeeping

Maintain records of staff-patient contact (i.e., who was assigned to work with the patient), either in a log or in the EHR. Document so that you can track and notify contacts in case of a COVID-19 diagnosis or probable exposure of the patient or practitioner.

To further protect your practice, document administrative records of community transmission rates, current protocols, and updated policies followed by your office. Considerations may include records of PPE supplies/shortages, cleaning protocols followed, communications with patients, case incidence, and available medical and dental resources within your community. Documentation that you have taken steps to follow recommended infection-control protocols may be your best defense if litigation related to COVID-19 should occur in the future.

Managing Legal Risks

According to the WHO, the influx of variants in the U.S. will continue to present unique challenges. Government authorities in some states may mandate additional restrictions of public activities, while other states will likely maintain unrestricted business operations. Medical and dental offices will continue to face multiple challenges, including CDC recommendations for operation, vaccinations, managing sick employees, and providing “catch-up” care for patients who postponed care because of fears.

Liability becomes a concern for healthcare practitioners if treatment of non–COVID-19 patients is delayed due to hospital and emergency room conditions. Invariably, the question becomes, “Did the hospital comply with community standards regarding access and delivery of services?” Following an adverse event—when plaintiff’s counsel would attempt to prove that the facility failed to follow what other similarly situated medical centers did in the same or similar situations—much would depend on whether the hospital complied with CDC guidelines and executive orders then in effect.

The bottom line: Even with the availability of the vaccine, medical and dental practices must not become complacent or be less vigilant. Because the virus continues to be a moving target, all healthcare practitioners and facilities must remain well-informed and current on public health guidance for screening protocols and patient management, as well as regulatory requirements affecting their practices. Continued careful screening with a bias for suspicion that a patient might have COVID-19 will serve healthcare practitioners well. We emphasize that the key to future litigation defense is keeping office policies and procedures current while following recommended guidelines and documenting adherence (in both administrative files and medical and dental records).

The dynamics surrounding the virus will continue to evolve, particularly with the potential spread of variants and as the population’s vaccination status evolves. What does not change is that healthcare practitioners and care teams must remain watchful and adapt their practices accordingly. Remain exceptionally proactive in asking the right questions, documenting interactions, rigorously following protocols, and keeping abreast of emerging insights and data as they become available from the CDC.

Additional Guidance

If you need help or have additional questions, contact the Department of Patient Safety and Risk Management at (800) 421-2368 or by email.


The guidelines suggested here are not rules, do not constitute legal advice, and do not ensure a successful outcome. The ultimate decision regarding the appropriateness of any treatment must be made by each healthcare provider considering the circumstances of the individual situation and in accordance with the laws of the jurisdiction in which the care is rendered.

J00899 02/24

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