The Doctor’s Advocate | First Quarter 2017
Prescription Opioid Abuse Epidemic
Analysis of Medication-Related Claims from The Doctors Company
We reviewed 1,770 claims from The Doctors Company that closed between 2007 and 2015 in which patient harm involved medication factors. In 272 of these claims (15 percent), the medications were narcotic analgesics.
In the context of the current epidemic of opioid-related deaths occurring predominantly among outpatients (OPs), this analysis focuses on claims arising in that setting, rather than on claims arising in an inpatient (IP) setting.
Sixty-four percent of the narcotic analgesic claims (174 claims) were from the OP setting. This setting included:
- Physicians’ offices and hospital clinics (78 percent).
- Ambulatory and day surgery (10 percent).
- Emergency room (9 percent).
- Patient's home (3 percent).
Methadone (16 percent OP versus 4 percent IP) and OxyContin (9 percent OP versus 3 percent IP) were more frequently involved in the OP setting, whereas Dilaudid (34 percent IP versus 10 percent OP), morphine (24 percent IP versus 15 percent OP), and fentanyl (16 percent IP versus 11 percent OP) were more frequently involved in the IP setting.
Sixty-five percent of the admitting diagnoses for OP narcotic-related claims were pain not otherwise specified (NOS) (24 percent), spine-related pain (22 percent), joint/extremity-related pain (9 percent), mental health issues (6 percent), and drug abuse/dependence (4 percent).
In the OP setting, 82 percent of patient allegations involved improper medication management or treatment (70 percent), wrong dose (9 percent), and wrong medication (3 percent). In the IP setting, these same allegations totaled 62 percent.
Of OP narcotic analgesic-related patient injury claims, 66 percent were classified as high severity* (versus 28 percent for IPs). In 60 percent of these OP claims, death was the most common result of injury. Of the final diagnoses for these OP claims, 84 percent included:
- Poisoning by methadone, heroin, and opiates/narcotics NOS (76 percent).
- Drug dependence (8 percent).
Patient contributing factors, which included noncompliance with the treatment plan, failure to follow physician instructions, and failure to keep or make follow-up appointments, were more frequent among OPs (39 percent) than IPs (16 percent), as were communication factors (32 percent OPs versus 20 percent IPs).
Since most IP narcotic analgesic-related adverse events occurred in the patient’s room (70 percent)—often following transfer from the PACU or ICU, where they had been closely monitored—it is not surprising that patient monitoring factors were higher among IPs (43 percent versus 21 percent OPs).